The CRM encourages the participation of scientists from across Canada and internationally in its programs and planning. Researchers from a variety of backgrounds are members of its International Scientific Advisory Committee.

In Quebec, the CRM collaborates actively with the Institut des sciences mathématiques (ISM) on all matters concerning the training of students and postdoctoral fellows, the promotion of mathematics education and research to the general public, and the relationship between universities, colleges and schools. Other collaborations are those with IVADO, CIRANO, ncm2, and partner universities.

At the Canadian level, the CRM is present in the forums where national science policies in the mathematical sciences are discussed and it organizes and supports research activities across the country. A specific budget is set aside each year to encourage the participation of Canadian students in CRM activities. The CRM coordinates its activities with the Fields Institute, PIMS, AARMS, CANSSI, BIRS, MITACS, the Canadian Mathematical Society (CMS), the Canadian Applied and Industrial Mathematics Society (CAIMS), the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), the Canadian Association of Physicists (CAP). The CRM is the only national institute that operates in the two official languages of Canada and it is highly visible on the international scene.

On the international scene, the main institutional collaborator of the CRM is the CNRS — the CRM is an IRL of the CNRS — and other partners include the MSRI at Berkeley, the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS), the Institut Henri Poincaré (IHP), the ALGANT (Algebra, Geometry, Number Theory) consortium of the Erasmus Mundus network, the Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain), the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Instituto Nacional de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (IPAM, Brazil).